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First Name Last Name. Password at least 8 characters required Confirm Password. Already have access? The Kiowa language is a member of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family. The relationship was first proposed by Smithsonian linguist John P. Harrington in , and was definitively established in He worked with John P. Harrington on the Kiowa language. He went on to discuss the etymology of words and insights of how the Kiowa language changed to incorporate new items of material culture.
McKenzie's letters are in the National Anthropological Archives on pronunciation and grammar of the Kiowa language. Originally a trade language, it became a language in its own right that remained in use across North America. As of [update] , the Kiowa Tribal chairman is Matthew M. Komalty, and the vice-chairman is Rhonda J. The Kiowa tribe issues its own vehicle tags. Originally from the Northern Plains and migrating to the Southern Plains, Kiowa society follows bilateral descent , that is, both maternal and paternal lines are significant.
Tipis , conical lodges made from hide or later canvas, provided lightweight, portable housing. They hunted and gathered wild foods and traded with neighboring agrarian tribes for produce. The Kiowa migrated seasonally with the American bison because it was their main food source. They also hunted antelope, deer, turkeys and other wild game.
Women collected varieties of wild berries and fruit and processed them with prepared meats to make pemmican. Dogs were used to pull travois and rawhide parfleche that contained camping goods for short moves. The Kiowa tended to stay in areas for long periods of time. When they adopted horse culture , after acquiring horses from Spanish rancherias south of the Rio Grande, the Kiowa revolutionized their lifeways.
They had much larger ranges for their seasonal hunting, and horses could carry some of their camping goods. The Kiowa historically had a nomadic hunter-gatherer society. They shared a similar cuisine with their neighboring Plains tribes, such as the Comanche. The most important food source for the Kiowa and fellow plains nations is the American bison or buffalo.
Before the introduction of horses, bison were hunted on foot and required the hunter to get as close as possible to the target before going close to shoot with arrows or use the long lance. Occasionally they wore the skins of wolves or coyotes to hide their approach towards the bison herds. Hunting bison became far easier after the Kiowa acquired horses. Bison were hunted on horseback and the men used bows and arrows to take them down, as well as long lances to pierce the hearts of the animals.
The women prepared bison meat in a variety of ways: roasted, boiled, and dried. Dried meat was prepared into pemmican , for sustenance while the people were on the move. Pemmican is made by grinding dried lean meat into a powder, then mixing a near equal weight of melted fat or tallow and sometimes berries; the pemmican was shaped into bars and kept in pouches until ready to eat. Certain parts of the bison were sometimes eaten raw.
Other animals hunted included deer, elk , pronghorn , wild mustang , wild turkey , and bears. During times of scarce game, the Kiowa would eat small animals such as lizards, waterfowl, skunks, snakes, and armadillos.
Men did most of the hunting in Kiowa society. Women were responsible for gathering wild edibles such as berries, tubers, seeds, nuts, vegetables, and wild fruit but could choose to hunt if they wanted to. Plants important to Kiowa cuisine includes pecans , prickly pear , mulberries , persimmons , acorns, plums, and wild onions.
They acquired cultivated crops, such as squash, maize , and pumpkin , by trading with and raiding various Indian peoples, such as the people Pawnee , living on the western edge of the great plains. Prior to acquiring metal pots from Europeans, Kiowa cooks boiled meat and vegetables through a process of lining a pit in the earth with animal hides, filling that with water, and adding fire-heated rocks.
The main form of shelter used by the Kiowa was the tipi or skin lodge. Tipis were made from bison hides shaped and sewn together in a conical shape. Wooden poles called lodge poles from 12—25 feet 3. Lodge poles are harvested from red juniper and the lodgepole pine.
Smoke flaps were place at the top, so that smoke could escape from the fire pit within. The floor of the tipi was lined with animal pelts and skins for warmth and comfort. The tipi is designed to be warm inside during the cold winter months and cool inside during the warm summer. Tipis are easily collapsed and can be raised in minutes, making it an optimal structure for a nomadic people like the Kiowa and other Plains Indian nations.
The poles of the tipi were used to construct a travois during times of travel. Hide paintings often adorn the outside and inside of the tipis, with special meanings attached to certain designs. Before the introduction of the horse to North America, the Kiowa and other plains peoples used domestic dogs to carry and pull their belongings. Tipis and belongings, as well as small children, were carried on travois, a frame structure using the tipi poles and pulled by dogs and later horses.
The introduction of the horse to Kiowa society revolutionized their way of life. They acquired horses by raiding rancheros south of the Rio Grande into Mexico, as well as by raiding other Indian peoples who already had horses, such as the Navajo and the various Pueblo people.
With the horse, they could transport larger loads, hunt more game over a wider range and more easily, and travel longer and farther. The Kiowa became powerful and skilled mounted warriors who conducted long-distance raids against enemies. The Kiowa were considered among the finest horsemen on the Plains. A man's wealth was measured primarily by the size of his horse herd, with particularly wealthy individuals having herds numbering in the hundreds.
Horses were targets of capture during raids. The Kiowa considered it an honor to steal horses from enemies, and such raids often served as a rite of passage for young warriors. They adorned their horses with body paint from the medicine man for ritual and spiritual purposes, such as good fortune and protection during battle.
Kiowa horses were also often decorated with beaded masks sometimes with bison horns attached to the sides and feathers in their manes. Mules and donkeys were also used as means of transportation and wealth; however, they were not as esteemed.
The Kiowa had a well structured tribal government like most tribes on the Northern Plains. They had a yearly Sun Dance gathering and an elected head-chief who was considered to be a symbolic leader of the entire nation. Warrior societies and religious societies were important to Kiowa society and carried out specific roles. Chiefs were chosen based on bravery and courage shown in battle as well as intelligence, generosity, experience, communication skills, and kindness to others.
The Kiowa believed that the young fearless warrior was ideal. The entire tribe was structured around this individual. The warrior was the ideal to which young men aspired. Because of these factors, the Kiowa was of utmost importance in the history of the Southern Plains. The women gain prestige through the achievements of their husbands, sons, and fathers, or through their own achievements in the arts. Kiowa women tanned, skin-sewed, painted geometric designs on parfleche and later beaded and quilled hides.
They gathered and prepared food for winter months, and participated in key ritual events. Kiowa men lived in the families of their wives' extended families. The Kiowa had two political subdivisions particularly with regard to their relationship with the Comanche :. As the pressure on Kiowa lands increased in the s, the regional divisions changed.
A new regional grouping emerged:. Kiowa bands within the tipi ring during the annual Sun Dance called Kc-to : . During the Sun Dance, some bands had special obligations. These were traditionally defined as follows:.
This band was particularly wealthy in horses, tipis and other goods. The Kogui were responsible for conducting the war ceremonies during the Sun Dance. Therefore, they were respected and enjoyed a special prestige. The Kinep or Khe-ate were often called "Sun Dance Shields", because during the dance, they observed police duties and ensured security. The chief Woman's Heart Manyi-ten belonged to this band.
The Semat were allowed to participate equally, but had no specific duties and obligations during the Sun Dance. Typical of the plains Indians, the Kiowa were a warrior people. They fought frequently with enemies both neighboring and far beyond their territory. The Kiowa were notable even among plains Indians for their long-distance raids, including raids far south into Mexico and north onto the northern plains.
Almost all warfare took place while mounted on horses. The Kiowa also came into conflict with Indian nations from the American south and east displaced to Indian Territory during the Indian Removal period including the Cherokee , Choctaw , Muskogee , and Chickasaw.
Eastern tribes found that Indian Territory, the place they were sent, was already occupied by plains Indians, most notably the Kiowa and Comanche. The Cheyenne and Arapaho would later make peace with the Kiowa and form a powerful alliance with them, the Comanche, and the Plains Apache to fight invading settlers and U. S soldiers, as well as Mexicans and the Mexican Army. Like other plains Indians, the Kiowa had specific warrior societies. Young men who proved their bravery, skill, or displayed their worth in battle were often invited to one of the warrior societies.
In addition to warfare, the societies worked to keep peace within the camps and tribe as a whole. There were six warrior societies among the Kiowa. Kiowa warriors used a combination of traditional and nontraditional weapons, including long lances, bows and arrows, tomahawks, knives, and war-clubs, as well as the later acquired rifles, shotguns, revolvers, and cavalry swords. Shields were made from tough bison hide stretched over a wooden frame, or made from the skull of bison, which made a small, strong shield.
Shields and weapons were adorned with feathers, furs, and animal parts such as eagle claws for ceremonial purposes. The Kiowa people told ethnologist James Mooney that the first calendar keeper in their tribe was Little Bluff, or Tohausan , who was the principal chief of the tribe from to Other Plains tribes kept pictorial records, known as "winter counts".
The Kiowa calendar system is unique: they recorded two events for each year, offering a finer-grained record and twice as many entries for any given period. Silver Horn — , or Haungooah, was the most highly esteemed artist of the Kiowa tribe in the 19th and 20th centuries, and kept a calendar. He was a respected religious leader in his later years.
In Kiowa tradition, death had strong associations with darks spirits and negative forces, which meant that the death of an individual was seen as a traumatic experience. Fear of ghosts in Kiowa communities stemmed from the belief that spirits commonly resisted the end of their physical life. The spirits were thought to remain around the corpse or its burial place, as well as haunt former living spaces and possessions.
Lingering spirits were also believed to help encourage the dying to cross from the physical world to the afterlife. The fear of ghosts can be seen in the way skulls were treated, which [ clarification needed ] was believed to be a source of negative spiritual contamination that invited danger to the living.
There have also been accounts of self-induced body lacerations and finger joints being cut. In the process of grief, women and the widowed spouse were expected to be more expressive in their mourning. The body of the deceased must be washed before burial. The washer, historically a woman, also combs the hair and paints the face of the dead. Once the body has been treated, a burial occurs promptly.
When possible, the burial takes place on the same day, unless the death occurs at night. In this case the dead is buried the following morning. A quick burial was believed to reduce the risk of spirits remaining around the burial site. After the burial, most of the belongings of the dead were burned along with their tipi.
If their tipi or house was shared with family, the surviving relatives moved into a new house. As members of the Kiowa-Tanoan language family, the Kiowa at some distant time likely shared an ethnic origin with the other Amerindian nations of this small language family: Tiwa , Tewa , Towa , and others. By historic times, however, the Kiowa lived in a hunter-gatherer economy unlike the sedentary pueblo societies of the others.
The Kiowa also had a complex ceremonial life and developed the ' Winter counts ' as calendars. They knew that they were driven south by pressure from the Sioux. Dohasan, who is also known as Touhason,  is considered by many to be the greatest Kiowa Chief — , as he unified and ruled the Kiowa for 30 years. Guipago and Satanta, along with old Satank, led the warring faction of the Kiowa nation, while Tene-angopte and Napawat led the peaceful party.
They were arrested by United States soldiers and transported to Jacksboro, Texas. En route, near Fort Sill, Indian Territory, Satank killed a soldier with a knife and was shot by cavalry troops while trying to escape. Satanta and Big Tree were later convicted of murder by a "cowboy jury". In September , Guipago met with Satanta and Ado-ete, the visit being one of Guipago's conditions for accepting a request to travel to Washington and meet President Grant for peace talks. Guipago eventually got the two captives released in September They surrendered after the Palo Duro Canyon fight.
Tene-angopte had to select 26 Kiowa chiefs and warriors to be deported; Satanta was sent to a prison in Huntsville, Alabama , while Guipago, Manyi-ten, Mamanti, Tsen-tainte, and others were sent to St. Augustine, Florida , at what was then known as Fort Marion. Guipago, having fallen sick with malaria , was jailed in Fort Sill, where he died in The Kiowa emerged as a distinct people in their original homeland of the northern Missouri River Basin. Searching for more lands of their own, the Kiowa traveled southeast to the Black Hills in present-day South Dakota and Wyoming around In the Black Hills region, the Kiowa lived peacefully alongside the Crow Indians , with whom they long maintained a close friendship, organized themselves into 10 bands, and numbered around Pressure from the Ojibwe in the north woods and edge of the great plains in Minnesota forced the Cheyenne, Arapaho, and later the Sioux westward into Kiowa territory around the Black Hills.
The Kiowa were pushed south by the invading Cheyenne who were then pushed westward out of the Black Hills by the Sioux. Eventually the Kiowa obtained a vast territory on the central and southern great plains in western Kansas, eastern Colorado, most of Oklahoma including the panhandle, and the Llano Estacado in the Texas Panhandle and eastern New Mexico.
In the early spring of at the place that would become Las Vegas, New Mexico , a Kiowa party led by war leader Guikate, made an offer of peace to a Comanche party while both were visiting the home of a mutual friend of both tribes. This led to a later meeting between Guikate and the head chief of the Nokoni Comanche. The two groups made an alliance to share the same hunting grounds and entered into a mutual defense pact and became the dominant inhabitants of the Southern Plains.
From that time on, the Comanche and Kiowa hunted, traveled, and made war together. In addition to the Comanche, the Kiowa formed a very close alliance with the Plains Apache Kiowa-Apache , with the two nations sharing much of the same culture and participating in each other's annual council meetings and events. The strong alliance of southern plains nations kept the invading Spanish from gaining a strong colonial hold on the southern plains and eventually forced them completely out of the area, pushing them eastward and south past the Rio Grande into present day Mexico.
In closing years of the 18th century and in the first quarter of the 19th century, the Kiowa feared little from European neighbors. Kiowa ranged north of the Wichita Mountains. The enemies of the Kiowa were usually the enemies of the Comanche.
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